abdominoplasty removing excess fatty tissue from the abdomen, also referred to as “tummy tuck”
ablatio mammae surgical removal of the female breast, mostly due to carcinoma
amputation surgical ablation of a body part
anamnesis patient status and history as established by a physician
anterior the general term applied to the front part of the body or any structure
aplasia underdeveloped breasts, flat chest
areola the darkened ring surrounding the nipple of the breast
areomamillary pertaining to the nipple or the areola
aspiration removal of liquids accrued in a cavity through extraction with the help of a cannula
asymmetry irregularity of the breasts, usually referring to their differing in size
augmentation (mammoplasty) enlargement (of the breast)
autoimmune diseases diseases of the immune system where antibodies harm tissues of their home organism
autologous reconstruction (breast) reconstruction with tissue from the patient’s body
autotransplantation transplantation of tissue from one part of a patient’s body to another
axilla; axillary approach armpit; accessing the implant position via an incision in the armpit, along the chest wall
Baker classification Capsular contracture may be an adverse effect occurring after the insertion of breast implants. The Baker grades I, II, III and IV are a classification system for capsular contractures; the lower the degree, the softer the contracture.
base size the diameter of a prosthesis measured at its base when placed on a flat surface
benign (med.) pertaining to tumors that do not spread and grow aggressively
bi-lateral pertaining to both sides
biopsy extraction of tissue through punction (with a needle) or excision (with the scalpel) for histological or cytological testing for tumors
bleeders vessels ruptured as a pocket is dissected, usually coagulated
blepharoplasty surgery of the eyelids
blunt dissection separation of tissue layers with blunt instruments or fingers
breast implant A medical device that is used for breast augmentation or post-cancer breast reconstruction. It consists of a dense, multilayered silicone-elastomer shell that is filled with saline solution or highly cohesive silicone gel. The current state of the art is the silicone gel-filled breast implant because the result is more permanent, highly aesthetic and more natural to the touch and in movement.
capsule a natural reaction of the body to surround a foreign object with a fibrous sheath
capsular contracture / fibrosis hardening of the capsule around a foreign body, sometimes painful
caudal anat. towards the tailbone
C.D.M. Custom Design Mould. A moulage molding technique from which a custom-made implant is made.
centimetre (cm) 2.5cm = 1″ (inch)
closed capsulotomy a technique to relieve the tension of a firm capsule by applying external pressure to the breast with the heels of the hands; often called the “squeeze” technique
cohesive gel silicone gel that has a high viscosity (very slow flow rate) and tends to adhere to itself as a mass
contra-lateral on the opposite side
cooper’s ligaments suspensory ligaments of the breast
Computed Tomography / CT 3D medical imaging method created with the help of computers and a large series of 2D X-ray images
curative therapy healing treatment
cutis outer skin layer, composed of dermis and epidermis
cytological examination cell examination with the help of a microscope
cytostatica remedies to block the growth of tumors (may also damage healthy cells)
cytotoxicity noxiousness of certain substances for a cell; the term is often used to describe the adverse effects of anti-cancer drugs
cyst lump in the human organism filled with more or less liquid contents and enclosed by a capsule;
dermabrasion the operative procedure used to remove acne, scars, severe sun spots or skin discoloration; may be performed using paper, wire, brushes or other abrasive materials
dermis layer of skin beneath the epidermis with numerous nerve ends, blood vessels and elastic fibers, home to the perspiratory glands
diagnosis stating a medical condition; identification of a disease
dislocation displacement (of an implant) from the original position
duckbill valve A filling valve that utilizes an elongated, flat tube that resembles a duck’s bill. Also called a leaf valve.
endoscope optical device for the enlargement of cellular structures and smaller units up to 300,000 times their size
epidermis outer layer of skin situated above the dermis, contains no vessels
epithelium, epithelial formations of cells that line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body
epithesis artificial body part, worn temporarily as an external replacement
estrogen female hormone occurring in various levels during the reproductive cycle
excision surgical removal of tissue
expander a device to be filled with sterile saline solution to expand and stretch the tissue covering the expander and prepare the area for an implant
fiber-optic retractor an instrument for drawing back the edges of a wound with a light source provided by a fiber-optic cable
filler cannula a small tube or cannula through which fluids are added to a prosthesis
firm (or hard) capsule a condition whereby the fibrous tissue continues to contract around an object until it is firm to the touch
flap tissue used for transplantation
flash cycle to sterilize at a high temperature, usually 270 degrees or more for a short period of time
fold flaw Results when part of the shell “folds” and erosion of corners follows. Can lead to holes in shell and deflation if it occurs in an inflatable or double-lumen style.
gel migration / permeation silicone molecules which are picked up and transported to other areas of the body by the lymphatic system
general anesthesia various combinations of agents used to induce a total loss of consciousness and sensitivity to pain; administered and maintained during surgery by an anesthesiologist or anesthetist
glandula, glandular (Lat.) gland; pertaining to glands
gluteus buttocks
gross examination examination of an object by the naked eye
gynecology medical science of the female reproductive system
gynecomasty uni- or bilateral enlargement of the male breast glands
hematoma a collection of blood outside the blood vessels, causing tissue swelling
hemostasis arrest of bleeding or of circulation
high profile an implant that has a high or domed projection when placed on a flat surface
histology; histological science and study of the microscopic anatomy of biological tissue; histological examination of a specially prepared tissue slice permits the diagnosis of the benign or malign nature of a tumor and may indicate its origins
hormones messenger substances created by an organism
hyperplasia congenital overdevelopment of tissue; very large breasts
hypertrophy (med.) pronounced scarring
hypoplasia congenital underdevelopment of tissue; very small breasts
immune system system of biological structures and processes that protects an organism against disease
implant (prosthesis) an artificial body part inserted as a permanent replacement in the body
incidence frequency of an occurrence
incision (med.) cut into the body for surgical approach
indication reason for the treatment of a disease
inferior below in relation to other parts of the body or of a structure
inframammary approach accessing the future implant position via an incision mid-point in the fold below the breast
keloid bulging scar, proliferation of connective tissue, occurring several weeks or month after mutilation (through trauma or surgery)
korium = dermis; the connective-tissue skin layer situated between epidermis and subcutis
lateral toward the side, opposite of median
latissimus dorsi back muscle beneath the shoulder blade used for autologous breast reconstruction
leaking the release of unattached molecules from the silicone gel that migrate through the shell (also called bleeding or weeping)
lipectomy body contouring surgery by removing fat cells
lipoaspiration / liposuction fat extraction by aspiration / suction
lipodystrophy disproportioned fat distribution
local anesthesia general sedation of a patient followed by a localized full block of the area of surgery
lot number a number assigned to each product denoting the silicone batch of origin as well as its month and year of manufacture
low profile an implant that has a low projection when placed on a flat surface
macromastia congenitally overlarge breasts
malign (med.) pertaining to tumors that spread and grow aggressively
mamma; mammary the female breast; pertaining to the female breast, the female breast glands
mammary expander device for the expansion of female breast tissue to gain skin coverage for an implant
mammaplasty plastic surgery of the breast
mammography radiographic examination of the breast
mastectomy removal of the breast
mastitis inflammation of the breast glands
mastopathy benign disorder of the mammary glands (may become malign over time)
mastopexy breast-lift surgery
medial towards the middle
metastasis secondary tumor, a spread from the primary tumor; in contrast to a local recurrence a metastasis may occur in a place far from the original tumor
“milking” a technique of inserting an implant through an incision by squeezing the gel in such a manner that enough pressure is applied to force the bulk of the prosthesis into the pocket without causing it to rupture
modified radical mastectomy removal of the breast, some surrounding lymph nodes, but sparing the majority of the pectoralis muscle
MRI / Magnetic Resonance Imaging medical imaging technology used for the diagnosis of illnesses
myocutaneous flap transplantable tissue consisting of skin and muscles
necrosis death of areas of tissue surrounded by healthy parts
normal saline solution a balanced 0.9% solution used for filling inflatable, bi-luminous and gel-saline implants
oedema aggregation of body liquids in the intercellular gaps
oncology the science and study of cancer
open capsulotomy a surgical procedure where the breast pocket is reopened and the fibrous tissue of a firm capsule is severed or removed
overfill the filling of a prosthesis shell over and above its standard quantity
palliative therapy treatment to reduce discomfort
palpate, palpation to determine by feel
patches small areas of material placed on the posterior portion of a implant to promote tissue ingrowth for stabilization. (rarely used today)
pectoralis muscle the large muscle underlying the breast
percutaneous insertion of a needle or instrument through the skin
periareolar approach accessing the implant position via an incision around a portion of the outer boundary of the areola
pigmentation accretion of biological colored substances
pocket an area to contain the breast prosthesis created by separating the fatty tissue of the breast and the underlying pectoralis muscle
Poland Syndrome congenital unilateral underdevelopment of varying characteristics; may concern the chest only but may also include anomalies of the hand
polydimethyl siloxane chemical term for silicone
posterior the general term applied to the back part of the body or any structure
postoperative after surgery
preoperative before surgery
prevention (med.) behavior to prevent the occurrence of cancer, i.e. a healthy way of living, e.g. through not smoking, no alcohol, a balanced diet, avoiding sun burns / excess weight
profile lateral shape of an implant
progesterone steroid with a central importance for the production of female sex hormones
prognosis likely course or outcome of an illness
prophylaxis medical procedure to prevent the occurrence of an illness
prosthesis artificial body part, either implant or epithesis: the implant is inserted as a permanent replacement in the body, the epithesis is worn temporarily as an external replacement
projection the outward thrust of the breast created or enhanced by the insertion of implants
ptosis sagging or hanging breast or breast tissue
punction biopsy with the help of a needle
radical mastectomy removal of the breast, underlying muscle and surrounding lymph nodes
radiology medical branch using imaging technologies like x-ray, ultrasound, CT and MRI for diagnosis
reconstruction (med.) recreation of lost tissues
relapse reappearance of an illness after complete recovery
remission (med.) diminishment of a tumor
rhytidectomy surgery of the face, facelift
R.T.V. Room temperature vulcanization. A silicone compound that will “set up” at room temperature.
runny gel silicone gel that has a high flow rate and tends to separate under stress
rupture bursting or breaking, e.g. of an implant
scalloping creasing or folding of the shell due to loss of volume
screening regular examinations to discover illnesses in people with no evident symptoms but a genetic disposition
self-sealing a valve that completely seals itself when the intra-cash is removed
semi-permeable membrane a membrane which will allow the passage of some molecules
sepsis blood poisoning
seroma aggregation of body liquids in cavities resulting from illnesses
serum; serous (med.) clear liquid remaining after body fluids were cleared from their cellular components; generally describes a component of the blood
silicone a synthetic polymer
sharp dissection a separation of tissue layers with a scalpel or knife
silicone polydimethyl siloxane, a synthetic polymer
silicone elastomer a synthetic polymer with reinforcing filler
silicone gel a synthetic polymer without reinforcing filler
sonography ultrasound-based medical imaging technique
steroid injection injecting steroids into inflatable or bi-lumen implants so they will be released into surrounding tissue over a period of time
subcutaneous mastectomy the removal of the majority of the breast tissue, leaving the skin and a thin layer of tissue for reconstruction purposes
subglandular positioning placing a breast implant under the mammary glands
submammary approach see: inframammary approach
subpectoral positioning placing a breast implant under the pectoralis muscle
superior above in relation to other parts of the body or of a structure
suture tab A small nylon loop usually placed on the posterior portion of a prosthesis for suturing to the chest wall or to other materials. Can also be used for orientation or positioning of implants.
symptom characteristics by which to recognize an illness
tear strength the amount of pressure needed to tear a sample of silicone sheeting after a slight cut has been made in it
tensile strength the amount of pressure needed to stretch a sample of silicone sheeting until it breaks
thorax, thoracic chest
TRAM flap Transversus Rectus Abdominis Muscle flap consisting of belly skin and a section of the straight belly muscle used for autologous breast reconstruction
transareolar across the areola
tubular breast ptotic breasts with a diameter scarcely larger than the areola
tumescence; tumescence anesthesia swelling; infiltration of the liposuction area with a liquid consisting of saline solution, a local anesthetic and adrenaline
tumor benign or malign agglomeration of non-functional cells
tumor marker body substances in the blood and urine that indicate an illness
tumorectomy surgical excision of a tumor
under the muscle see: sub-pectoral
underfill the filling of a prosthesis shell under its standard quantity
undermine to separate layers of tissue
unilateral pertaining to one side
valve a mechanism through which additional material is added to a saline implant or expander
virus pathogenic organisms with no own metabolism that need a host cell to proliferate; will be attacked by the immune system of the invaded organism
weeping another term for leaking
wrinkling term used to describe folds, ridges or creases showing on the skin after an implantation caused by a too large implant pocket
zipper effect This references a scalloping edge on a gel implant. The term “scalloping” references the same phenomena on an inflatable implant.


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